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History of Malaysia

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Malaysia is located on a strategic sea lane that exposes it to global trade and various cultures. Strictly, the name "Malaysia" is a modern concept, created in the second half of the 20th century. However, contemporary Malaysia regards the entire history of Malaya and Borneo, spanning thousands of years back to prehistoric times, as its own history, and as such, it is treated on this page.

An early western account of the area is seen in Ptolemy's book Geographia, which mentions a "Golden Khersonese," now identified as the Malay Peninsula. Hinduism and Buddhism from India and China dominated early regional history, reaching their peak during the reign of the Sumatra-based Srivijaya civilisation, whose influence extended through Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula and much of Borneo from the 7th to the 13th centuries.

Although Muslims had passed through the Malay Peninsula as early as the 10th century, it was not until the 14th century that Islam first firmly established itself. The adoption of Islam in the 14th century saw the rise of several sultanates, the most prominent were the Sultanate of Malacca and the Sultanate of Brunei. Islam had a profound influence on the Malay people but has also been influenced by them. The Portuguese were the first European colonial powers to establish themselves on the Malay Peninsula and Southeast Asia, capturing Malacca in 1511, followed by the Dutch in 1641. However, it was the English who, after initially establishing bases at Jesselton, Kuching, Penang and Singapore, ultimately secured their hegemony across the territory that is now Malaysia. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies . On the other hand, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and Siam . The fourth phase of foreign influence was an immigration of Chinese and Indian workers to meet the needs created by the colonial economy in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo.

Japanese invasion during World War II ended British rule in Malaya. The subsequent occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak from 1942 to 1945 unleashed a wave of nationalism. After the Japanese surrender from Malaya due to being defeated by the Allies, Malayan Union was established in 1946 by the British administration but following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 as a protectorate state until 1957. In the Peninsula, the Malayan Communist Party took up arms against the British and the tension led to the declaration of emergency rule for 12 years from 1948 to 1960. A serious military response to the communist insurgency as well as the Baling Talks in 1955 led to the establishment of independence for Malaya on 31 August 1957 through diplomatic negotiation with the British. Tunku Abdul Rahman became the first Prime Minister of Malaysia. In 1960, the termination of emergency occurred as the communist threat decreased and their withdrawal to the borders between Malaya and Thailand. On 16 September 1963, The Federation of Malaysia was formed following the merger of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore,
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